Ancestral Ketogenic Diets and Brain Cancer – The Scarborough Protocol

Two and a half years ago 27 year old Andrew Scarborough was suffering from fatigue, headaches and seizures. He suddenly collapsed with the worst headache in his life and was rushed to the hospital only to discover that he had an acutely hemorrhagic brain mass. Decompressive brain surgery and biopsy revealed a most serious form of brain cancer know as Grade 3 Anaplastic Astrocytoma, inevitably fatal.

Andrew was devastated yet determined to fight his disease. He worked with his team of physicians and oncologists, following standard yet unproven therapies including radiation and chemotherapy. After months of ineffectiveness, major side effects, frustration, sadness and soul searching Andrew was at a crossroads.

Interestingly, Andrew was pursuing a master’s degree in nutritional therapy during this time. Although he was always health and fitness conscious his studies shook him to the core as he came to challenge standard nutritional doctrine. He wondered if a unique nutritional approach addressing the metabolic component of cancer, specifically a highly modified ketogenic diet might address his disease, seizures and symptoms.

Despite objection from Andrew’s initial doctors, he chose to discontinue standard therapies pursuing instead an unconventional approach via nutrition. Andrew was inspired by many including researchers Dominic D’agastiono, PhD, Thomas Seyfried, PhD and Adrienne Scheck, PhD who have all been seeking treatments for aggressive, rapidly growing and metabolically active cancers.

Andrew developed a highly specialized ancestral ketogenic diet based on the principles of evolutionary heath and healing. The diet is high in fat ~85%, almost void of carbohydrate and predominantly animal based nose-to-tail consumption. He also consumes ketone ester salts, specific supplements and will intermittently fast with the goal to metabolically starve his cancer.

Slowly Andrew noted improvements in energy, headaches and seizure frequency. He found an amazing group of supportive doctors including Dr. Kevin O’Neill at the Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College London where he lives. Andrew was able to stop all of his anti-seizure medication and at two years from diagnosis his doctors agreed that his tumor appeared to be in remission. His most recent scans now at two and a half years from diagnosis again demonstrate remission with a small area of remnant scar tissue.

andrew images

Initial Scan (L) 05/15/2013 Tumor/Hemorrhage – Most Recent Scan (R) 11/02/2015 Remnant Scar Tissue


Andrew remains determined and will continue to tweak his program including the addition of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Andrew plans to complete his studies and has been offered a research position at the Charing Cross hospital where he’s being treated, working with the Neuro-Oncology team and Dr. Scheck. The team is currently working on submitting proposals for human trials that will run in the UK and US addressing ketogenic diets alongside standard cancer treatment therapies. How cool is that! New Scientist will be featuring an article about Andrew and this research in the January 2016 issue. He’s knowledgeable, polite and humble. Although he refers to it as the Andrew method I much prefer calling his achievement The Scarborough Protocol.

Ivor Cummins and I had the opportunity to interview Andrew recently while attending Health Unplugged in London. We’ve had numerous conversations with Andrew, reviewed scans and doctor’s notes in preparation to bring you this information. Despite advances in modern medicine certain aggressive tumors remain difficult to treat. Andrew’s success to date represents a unique self-experiment that addresses cancer as a metabolic disease. I applaud Andrew’s effort along with his doctors support. I hope you enjoy our conversation.

Follow Andrew’s story on his blog: My Brain Cancer Story

Barrow Neurological Institute and Adrienne Scheck, PhD. Based in Phoenix AZ, USA

Dominic D’Agostino et al’s landmark cancer study here:

Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination ofKetogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

….and his great presentation on YouTube

Thomas Seyfried explains cancer as primarily a metabolic disease, not a genetic one, on YouTube

Thomas Sayfried’s book: Cancer as a Metabolic Disease

Nonprofit: The Charlie Foundation

Nonprofit: Matthews Friends

Zen, and the Art of Zero-Carb Living: Andrew discusses his progress in May of 2015

New Scientist: Ketogenic diet’s reputed anticancer credentials put to test

Metabolic therapy resources for brain cancer management from Andrew Scarbourough: Brain Cancer Options

Ancestral Ketogenic Diets and Brain Cancer - The Scarborough Protocal

Jeffry Gerber, MD – Andrew Scarborough – Ivor Cummins, BE(Chem) CEng MIEI


  • Kristen Oberhauser Bishop

    Very interesting. I thought that it was a friendly debate until I saw that someone was blocked. May I humbly suggest that you do that by personal message. I am not an esteemed scientist or doctor, but I worked as a lowly school librarian and tried to teach internet etiquette. That particular post detracted from the conversational thread. It was distracting and might turn away someone who may truly benefit from the information being discussed. In subject matter as important as this, one must remain as objective as possible, and keep a cool head. Keep up your good work.

  • Emily BH

    How in the world, if a human’s digestive tract is 98 percent identical to a primate’s which is designed to eat and utilize mostly fruit and vegetables and some tender leafy greens, can a ketogenic diet (or a Paleo or the Atkins diet) be at all good for humans? Furthermore, humans have hands like primates do to pick fruit off trees.
    If eating plants and fruit bring about a detox reaction, that is just the body trying to rid itself of acid wastes that were created by eating all the harmful animal proteins, complex carbohydrates and cooked dead foods in the first place. It should be welcomed. What causes the cancer is the damage done to the cells by the recycling of wastes from these foods that never should have been eaten which are also the primary components of these harmful fad diets.
    It is really sad that so called “nutrition” majors are learning such nonsense in schools and aren’t smart enough to realize on their own it can’t possibly be true. All they need to do is look at our digestive tracts to get an idea of what we should be eating for health. Then they can study the numerous Naturopathic doctors and herbalists and even medical journals dating back to the 1800s and before to see that the closer we align with Nature and stop trying to reinvent the wheel, the healthier and better off we’ll be.

    • @disqus_XUGANo8qfu:disqus, thanks for your important comments. You might find this talk from D. Mike Eades “Paleopathology and the Origins of the Paleo Diet” interesting:

      Just remember that we don’t live on the planet of the apes. Perhaps there’s a nutritional explanation why humans became the dominant species.

      • Emily BH

        Medical Doctors aren’t trained in medical school to know anything to write home about as far as health goes. As you know they learn allopathic medicine which treats symptoms only with man made methods. Their biggest contribution is saving lives and stabilizing people when they are at the brink of death or putting them back together after a terrible accident. Some of what they do is actually quite barbaric and makes no sense whatsoever yet they get paid handsomely for it .

        It is the Naturopathic Doctors who are the “experts” when it comes to understanding and reversing so called chronic and degenerative “diseases” who HAVE learned at least something about health.

        No experienced naturopath worth their salt is going to recommend eating meat and cheese to a cancer patient. That would be COMPLETELY irresponsible.

        Look at the junk that is served to sick patients in hospitals! It is meat and starch and some over cooked vegetables and soda or dairy. All of it should be avoided by the sick especially. It just goes to show how clueless the medical profession is about what humans should be eating for health.

        It isn’t sugar that feeds cancer it is Protein! Recently there have been articles in “The Scientific American” and “Forbes” about the protein-cancer connection.

        Even the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine PCRM.ORG has been saying this for decades– that people should be avoiding all animal products …. but it was never talked up in the media for obvious reasons…. that eating dead animal flesh and bovine secretions caused cancer.

        A lot of industries (the meat and dairy growers, Big Medica and Big Pharma) would be a lot less profitable if a large number of people knew the truth and started eating like a raw vegan/fruitarian and all their diseases fell by the wayside. Wouldn’t they?

        Read your medical journals. PCRM links to them. There are recent articles in Forbes and Scientific American both that reveal the protein -cancer connection. Just do an advanced search. Furthermore it is Methionine, an amino acid in protein that cancer cells require in order to reproduce. That is why all the much more succsessful cancer healing programs using herbs and diet require that proteins be EXCLUDED from the diet or at least greatly reduced.

        Raw Foodists who have brought their kids up eating mostly raw fruit and vegetables are the healthiest and the smartest in their class

        Dr Eades is obviously more interested in making money based on his intro about all his business ventures. I never heard him say our digestive tracts were appreciably different than ours. He kept harping on the fact that they had bigger stomachs.

        The fact remains we have a very similar digestive tracts. If we were true omnivores we’d have stomachs like dogs and hogs and we probablty wouldn’t be as sick as we all are because our stomachs could actually break down and utilize and then eliminate animal protein rather than having it create havoc in our bodies creating mucus and acid wastes which just clog our immne/lymphatic systems which creates all sorts of ill health because it is our bodies’ sewage system.

        Imagine if your septic tank was clogged in your house. Would you call a professional who could empty it for you or would you call the professional who would tell you to just keep using it and to give it some chemicals to ckear the toilet and the drains? Or how about if the second guy recommended digging it up and taking it away? How long if you went to the second guy do you think his solution would last? Would it leave you better off than the first guy’s solution? Perhaps it would if you didn’t mind a torn up smelly backyard with the sewage now emptying into the yard. Isn’t the second guy’s approach similar to the approach used in western medicine? If it isn’t working, just cut it out.

        Dr. Robert Morse is a biochemist, herbalist and proponent of detoxing and getting the lymphatic system moving and wastes eliminated through the kidney to create robust health. He’s also a Naturopathic Doctor with 40 years experience. He has patients who have been on high protein diets for only 5 years coming to his office who are peeing out parts of their bladder all the protein has done so much damage. Here he talks about food.

        • @disqus_XUGANo8qfu:disqus I’d like to focus on the content of the original post and I hope it will address some of your comments.

          Andrew’s treatment of his aggressive brain cancer is based on mitochondrial dysfunction, what is called the Warburg Effect: That cancer cells preferentially utilize glucose for fuel and so intake is very low in carbohydrate, low in protein and relatively high in fat 75%, but also low in caloric content, driving insulin down. You can call it a high fat, low calorie diet, ketogenic diet. The idea being to starve the cancer cells.

          I think that fruit and veggies are great. Andrew does consume certain vegetables (like Kelp) but for the benefit of mineral content, not detoxifying. A plant based diet doesn’t address the Warburg Effect.

          You can also look up Thomas Sayfreid and read more about cancer as a metabolic disease:

          • Emily BH

            Why make it any more complicated than it is? Cancer is nothing but damaged cells. Take away the toxic environment that created it in the first place and replace that with a healing alkaline environment by detoxing the body of years of build up of acid wastes, leaving a clean healthy alkaline body, you’ll have not only a reversal of the so called “disease” but you’ve eliminated the chances of any re-occurrence ( barring any onslaught of abuse with a full on junk food protein laden acid producing diet) for decades if not forever.

          • Emily BH

            Well if Andrew has not tried detoxifying, maybe he should. Maybe he’d find that by getting rid of the acid environment that created the inflammation and the cell destruction in the first place, like every other person that has tried it and done it right, he’d see the cancer stop growing and dissolve into his lymphatic system and get excreted by his body.

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  • Jack Kruse
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  • @andrew_scarborough:disqus thanks for joining in on the thread.

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  • Jack Kruse

    Enjoyed the post but I cannot let the meme that ketosis is a “cure” for this cancer persist. I treat these cancers. Ketosis is a tool we should use after we do the most important thing first. We must fix the light environment the patient choses to be in chronically first………….then ketosis makes sense to buy time…….the irony in all this is paradigm protection? We have to forget about macronutrients and focus in on what controls those macronutrient flows through mitochondria. Glioma patients all have redox shifted mitochondria. What gets us new mitochondria? UV light in the RPE (eye) and Carbs in the gut properly yoked. Carbs in cancer are not an ideal dance partner because UV light exposure is always lacking in both the RPE and skin. This is why cancer inicidence is lower in equatoruial regions than up at higher latitudes. But today’s world we lower the quantum yield even on the equator with our creation of alien suns in tech. When you are young white guy in the UK, embrace technology use, while getting little to no UV on a chronic basis it should be no shock why it occurs. have a close look where the glioma was. Right above the ear where technology is used too often. I see this pattern too frequently these days in patients and focusing in on food first is a really bad idea. I do think oncology has to use ketosis as a tool, much like it advocates other adjuvants. Physicians like Colin Champ, are championing that effort and I applaud that work. Each branch of science works within its own particular paradigm. What I am going after assaults many beliefs across many scientific theories. But I believe, no paradigm should be safe under the inquiry of someone looking for how nature might be at work below our current beliefs and precepts of truth. Optimizing light and minimizing nnEMF should be advocated before attacking diet should be the recipe for these problems and then I am a full bore ketosis supporter. Using diet alone, and not altering the nnEMF or blue light exposure is a recipe for recurrence and/or de-differentiation. These astrocytoma are know for acting in just this fashion. But there is a very specific context that needs to be teased out in these patients with different grades of astrocytoma. The programs requires carbs in the gut when UV is present in the eye to get to autophagy to rid us of redox shifted mitochondria that have pseudohypoxia and low NAD+ levels. Remember, NAD+ at cytochrome 1 is a FLUOROPHORE protein. This means It needs a strong UV signal on the electrons at cytochrome one to work properly. What frequency specifically? 340nm. Yes…..In the UV range and very well known and published. All cancers tend to have pseudohypoxia and low NAD+. Sinclair published a classic paper on this in December of 2013. Those electrons come from foods that grow in long light cycles that carry the energy and momentum from that light. This is why my glioma patients can go back to eating regular diets when the proper circadian fixes are made before surgery or any other treatment. Circadian biology is a light driven and mediated process not a food driven one. That is a meme that must change. It is the basis why medicine is off the mark in so many areas in my opinion. We are learning this from the chronobiologic, photobiomodulation, and optogenetics literature and research. Using the correct frequencies of light at the correct time of day/night is how proteins go from ordinary biochemical gears in biochemical pathways we learn in medical school, to extra-ordinary non linear optical communication devices used in our brain for signaling. The most powerful part of the visible spectrum on Earth is UV light; moreover, it is well established in bio-optics, that under bright light, ordinary optics becomes non linear optics and this is where life changes and tumors begin. I have commented on this to Ivor and Andy in many places on the net and I hope this meme gets changed to help others. I want Andy to remain well and I have told him that as well. He needs to focus on light first, then food. In glioma’s, optics is NOT “light” work; It is life making light work properly in our cells to direct signaling between glial cells and neurons.

    • Thanks for sharing Jack. I’ve heard you talk about this before. What I find interesting are your comments about the location of Andrew’s tumor above the left ear. I wonder if Andrew has used his cellular on that side.

      • Jack Kruse

        Thanks Jeff. Appreciate the kind reply. In all of the major model organisms in which
        circadian rhythms have been studied there has emerged a central organizing principle of the molecular clockwork: within cells a set of clock genes and their protein products together participate in autoregulatory coupled feedback loops of transcription and translation to produce an oscillation with a period of about 24 hr. This links light to protein degradation and nucleic acids are what make protein in us. This is why light activates ubiquitination rates and ubiquination couples to epigenetic expression and links to cancer’s like Andy’s. It also points out why food is not the player we all thought it was. It is counterintuitive but make evolutionary sense. The sun was here before food was present on Earth. Our system is attuned and order to these origins. We seem to forget that basic concept of nature.

        Most people know that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain is where the circadian pacemaker lies in humans. It monitors this dance between darkness and light, and the seasonal cold and hot temperatures in our environment to help control and monitor our own growth and development. Evolution apparently agreed to use these signals in all living things because this is what it uses for all life on earth today. Optogenetic and optical photonics opens another trap door for medicine and ancestral health to be aware of. It ties deeply to Andy’s astrocytoma. Polarized light has massive effects on protein thermodynamics. This has also been proven in prion diseases, and Stanley Prusiner’s got a Noble Prize for it. Many LCHF guru’s (Taubes specifically) made fun of Dr. Prusiner’s work. People in his circle and his supporters continue to make errors in their current assault of carbohydrates. they have completely missed the story of the frequencies of light that must occur naturally via the pupil and skin while we eat what we do. These sensory stimuli are accounted for by mitochondria and the leptin receptor. Those dietary guru’s believe what their business partners in LCHF world sell’s. It is a huge shell game in my mind. You need to be wary of their advice too. Some call it conformational bias, I call it unethical in many cases. This is why we need to help the public as much as we can when the science gets deep. Most food guru’s do not know what is best. This is why I read the Dietary Guidelines as a fiction novel. They are set in place by people beholden to the government and Big Food and have no basis in science by any stretch. I read them for laughs. The real intention is to control the people who follow them by lowering their dopamine levels first in their eye, and then in their frontal eye fields and frontal lobes. In this way they become docile, “good customers”, and “good citizens” who are easier to control from Washington DC and their corporate offices. Back to light and what Stanley taught us that we still dont realize about light.

        This means circadian mismatches can alter the polarization of light in our tissues, which result in altered cellular signals. The proof that this process is going on in us, is easy to resolve because we now can see size, shape, and location changes of proteins, organelles, and nucleic acids that are suspended within the water of our cells with electron microscopes. This is no longer a best guess theory, no matter the marketing paradigm that you ascribe too. This can be done with tissue samples or with MRI’s. I do them with both. Andy’s MRI is up in this post. It is a protons shadow cast of a poor light environment.

        We attract wisdom we are prepared to receive, Jeff and I know people are not ready for this message. People in medicine and ancestral health care more about beliefs than reality or truth because they create their own versions of reality they use in their businesses. Everyone needs to become aware of the biologic cost of bad thinking. Every single eutherian mammalian gene, has a clock gene in front of their somatic genes. Ask yourself why that relationship exists? Is it food or light that control your biology? Circadian rhythms are controlled by “clock genes” that are entrained by light. These are natural facts, not my opinion. Be careful who’s beliefs control your dietary template. If you’re smart you’re template will begin with the sun and not with food. Caveat Emptor. Think for yourself or be like the Sphinx. The Sphinx looks east every morning while laying down on the Earth. That is an ancient meme I can get behind. Photonics over electronics is a very ancient meme indeed.

        • “Photonics over electronics is a very ancient meme indeed.” We’ll leave it there Jack.

        • NS

          Don’t forget the importance of cholesterol and saturated fat in assisting our skin to handle sun exposure. Food may be a player — good fat in particular — when it comes to light exposure in various places in the body. There’s still much we don’t know about life’s evolution in a context of UV to IR and electromagnetic fields, etc.

          • NS

            Also food was present when life evolved, both in the context of and acted on by circadian, circannual, and planetary and stellar effects.

    • Andrew is right handed and he would hold the phone to his right ear. The tumor was on the opposite side.

      • I’m right-handed, but I hold my land-line and my smart-phone in my left hand against my left ear, when I’m not using ear-buds. This leaves my dominant hand free to type on my keyboard.

        The patch antenna on a Samsung Galaxy S2 is at the back of the phone, so the field strength at the front of the phone is low.

        I’m not 100% certain, but I think that the latest iPhones use a slit antenna at the bottom left corner, where there’s a gap in the metal. This means that the “hot” spot, RF-wise is nowhere near the ear. There was something in the media about the iPhone 5’s signal strength dropping a lot when an uncased phone was held with the thumb over the gap, detuning the slit antenna.

        See, being an RF Design Engineer can be very useful! 😀

        • Nigel, you know I’m not an engineer (should have probably been one) but an old Ham Radio licensed guy. Spent my youth building radios. Now I build computers/networks and fix my children’s cell phones when they break, in between doctoring. 🙂

          I have also seen the antennas sitting low in these devices. I wondered if cupping the hand would block the antenna signal but the industry is probably more interested to get the antenna that emits all the EMR (electromagnetic radiation) as far away from the head as possible.

          EMR (electrons in a less excited state) is not ionizing radiation. The ionizing radiation (x-ray is one example) has clearly been established as carcinogenic.

          Only an RF Design Engineer like you would know!

          • EMR has a very slight heating effect. Smart-phones operate at ~900MHz (Vodafone & O2), ~1.8GHz (Orange & EE) & ~1.9GHz (T-mobile, Giff-Gaff, Tesco etc). Microwave ovens (designed to have the maximum possible heating effect!) operate at ~2.45GHz.

            Smart phones get warm due to modern apps which require a lot of processing power, which makes the CPU chip run hot. The heating effect due to holding a warm smart-phone to the ear is much greater than any RF heating effect.

          • ~2.45GHz (microwave) is the optimal frequency to heat water and the cellular frequencies aren’t even close and as you said that the body blocks those cellular UHF frequencies. Andrew did mention that there is however an association between acoustic neuromas and cell phone usage. There isn’t much there to block the EMR that could potentially travel into the auditory canal.

          • are benign tumours of the acoustic nerve, which is in the inner ear, a relatively long distance from the outer ear. I would expect people to get tumours of the ear lobe, if EMR is going to have any carcinogenic effect.

          • Daniel

            Well regardless where you put your phone on your head… you still have wifi pretty much everywhere you go.. literally (3G, 4G even lights up for me in the forest). If I turn on the wifi in my home, I can find about 20 active networks around me. I even find some on the highway… plus the bluetooth. Also some cars have crazy EMF just right above the head (in my car the passenger seat is 200+), plus radio towers everywhere. So I guess in this EMF jungle it doesn’t really add much to the cause where you put your mobile phone, but of course I use speaker when I can.

          • @disqus_sGX8rdsBRh:disqus wifi and other distance sources aren’t the issue. EMR intensity decreases by the square of the distance from the source. The discussion has to do with placing cell phones which are UHF radio transmitters (very low power sources BTW) next to the body.

    • “but focusing in on food first for these patients as a group, is a really bad idea.”
      As food (also UVB) gives the body the nutrients it needs to function correctly, I couldn’t disagree more.

      1. The body is opaque (apart from the cornea), where light is concerned.
      2. The body behaves like a large bag of salt-water, where RF fields are concerned (which affects antenna impedance-matching, something I’ve worked on many times in my 29 years as an RF Design Engineer).

      Please stick to neurosurgery, Dr Kruse!

      • Jack Kruse

        You might want to review your antenna rules and quantum optics for trnsparency too. Daytime is associated with the presence of DC electric current in cells. At nighttime it disappears as proven by experiment by Robert O. Becker. What happens in between is why evolution invented sleep. When electric resistance is increased light emission occurs photoelectrically. I am assuming you do know that LED light is emitted from semiconductors. This shows you that a DC electric current can be changed to a photonic signal just by a temperature change. I am assuming you do know that nighttime and melatonin secretion lowers temperature in the human brain. Semiconductors lie in an area between the metals and non-metals on the periodic table. Life is carbon based. Carbon is in Group IV of the periodic table. For the Group IV semiconductors such as collagen, diamond, silicon, germanium, silicon carbide, and silicon germanium, the most common dopants are acceptors from Group III or donors from Group V elements. Boron, arsenic, phosphorus, and occasionally gallium are used to dope silicon.By doping carbon based semiconductors with Group V elements like nitrogen and phosphorus, extra valence electrons are added that become unbonded from individual atoms and allow the compound to be an electrically conductive N-type semiconductor. This is why carbon based collagen is the number one protein in all living cells and it is also why phosphorus is mission critical in turning on and turning off physiologic pathways used inside of all living cells. This is also why Nature has put chlorophyll and hemoglobin put nitrogen next to carbon and transition metals as my picture below shows. N-type semiconductors have a larger electron concentration than hole concentration. The phrase ‘n-type’ comes from the negative charge of the electron. In n-type semiconductors, electrons are the majority carriers and holes are the minority carriers. N-type semiconductors are created by doping an intrinsic semiconductor with donor impurities (or doping a p-type semiconductor as done in the making of CMOS chips). A common dopant for n-type silicon in technology is phosphorus. Life does the same thing, but it pairs carbon with nitrogen and phosphorus in its semiconductive circuits. Physics geeks will recall in an N-type semiconductor, the Fermi level is greater than that of the intrinsic semiconductor and lies closer to the conduction band than the valence band. In life, I have had a sense for a long time that carbon based semiconductors have used nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and the transition metals as the key “doping atoms” inside of cells because they are found in all key proteins and in mitochondria and blood. Every cytochrome mouth has an iron sulfur couple in them for a reason. In fact, Becker found bone collagen is an N-type semiconductor and it is also piezoelectric. Piezoelectric materials are able to turn mechanical energy into electric energy. Recall that vibrations, oscillations, and solitons are a form of mechanical energy. I told you in Time 20 that the 100 Hz vibration was key in fat burning. In bone, the N type junction is collagen and the P-type junction is apatite. All biologic semiconductors, that use a P and N junction also are fully capable of emitting light. Becker found bone was a light emitting diode (LED). Becker discovered this in his experiments by looking at currents flowing “uphill”. This uphill current is is called a reverse bias current. It is used to look for photoelectric effects in circuits. Many semiconductors absorb energy from light, and any current flowing through the material gets a boost. In these experiments Becker did on bone, just shining light on the bone elicited an increase in current. The light bone emitted was infrared. This makes sense when one considers that bone is surrounded by water, contains massive amounts of water, and its bone marrow is filled with blood plasma which is 93% water by volume. Becker knew most semiconductors absorb UV light and fluoresced as a result. The light semiconductors emitted was almost always a lower frequency so the finding that whole bone emitted infrared light intuitively told him bone had to absorb UV light. He found whole bone fluoresced a bluish ivory, while collagen yielded an intense blue light, and apatite emitted a brick red color.

        Bone also has a dopant, two copper atoms, and these atoms rectify the current. Rectifying a current gives it a direction. This makes the bone semiconductor circuit sensitive to current’s direction. A current’s direction is critical in how light can or cannot be polarized. Sunlight is unpolarized and man made light is polarized. Sunlight is designed to be polarized by cells when they are transparent to the sun’s light during daytime. I think Nigel you best re-open those books that allowed you to be an engineer. You clearly need an update. Sunlight is unpolarized in nature. RF antenna’s you design however release polarized light for communication to their receivers and in biology cells capture sunlight and protein side chains polarize sunlight in us to use it for non linear optics. You clearly need to update your knowledge of Faraday’s effect on polarized light. Our mitochondria uses it superbly. Please open a modern book and stop assuming you know Nigel what you clearly do not.

        • If you’re claiming that internal body parts can act as semiconductor rectifiers, this would cause physical effects to be felt when the body is exposed to powerful RF fields during MRI scanning. MRI field strengths are monitored, as they are almost high enough to cause RF heating in tissues. As nothing is felt during MRI scans (unless the magnetic field is varied too rapidly), you’re writing bullshit as per usual.

          The rest of your verbose ramble about the effect of full-spectrum sunlight on tissues that aren’t exposed to full-spectrum sunlight (due to being covered in a layer of skin & blood) is irrelevant.

          Excessive amounts of blue light entering the corneas (the only parts of the body that have low attenuation to blue light) after sunset e.g. from LED lamps, LCD back-lights etc cause suppression of melatonin levels, which is bad.

          RF antennas for WiFi & mobile phones release no light whatsoever, as the wavelength for RF is much longer (60mm for 5GHz WiFi, the highest frequency WiFi) than for visible light (0.0007mm for red, to 0.0004mm for blue). Mobile phones use even longer wavelengths (158mm for the 1.9GHz network, the highest frequency network). Please stick to neurosurgery, Dr Kruse.

          I’ll give you ten out of ten for condescension, though. You might want to review your writing tone.

          • Jack Kruse

            Becker has already proven this in the 1960’s but its clear you do not know it. Collagen was the N type and appatite the P type. Copper the dopant. And why dont we feel it? All the antenna’s are covered by a high dielectric at 160 called EZ water. Also proven by experiment which you clealry do not know about. Read some more.

          • FYI: I’m blocking you on Disqus, so I don’t have to see or be notified of your irrelevant bullshit any more. Good-bye!

    • Andrew Scarborough

      Its a great point, the ketogenic diet should be just part of a metabolic approach involving changes to the individual’s lifestyle as a whole. Light plays a crucial role in that and I will have to write about this. Thanks Jack.

    • Jennifer Valenti

      Jack.. you misunderstand the role of ketones with mitochondria.. not only can our healthy mitochondria use ketones for energy instead of glucose, they thrive on it. Cancer cells cannot respirate ketones.. without glucose they will starve, which will lead them to apoptosis. That is the point of the ketogenic diet in treating cancer. Please read “Tripping over the Truth” or “Cancer as a metabolic disease”. Or for the love of god.. google Otto Warburg. But, you are way off on your assessments.

      • Jack Kruse

        Please get your facts correct before you comment. Not all cancers follow a Warburg metabolism. And if you knew any of the latest in mitochondrial medicine you’d know this. The story of modern cancer research begins, somewhat improbably, with the sea urchin. In the first decade of the 20th century, the German biologist Theodor Boveri discovered that if he fertilized sea-urchin eggs with two sperm rather than one, some of the cells would end up with the wrong number of chromosomes and fail to develop properly. It was the era before modern genetics, but Boveri was aware that cancer cells, like the deformed sea urchin cells, had abnormal chromosomes; whatever caused cancer, he surmised, had something to do with chromosomes.

        Today Boveri is celebrated for discovering the origins of cancer, but another German scientist, Otto Warburg, was studying sea-urchin eggs around the same time as Boveri. His research, too, was hailed as a major breakthrough in our understanding of cancer. But in the following decades, Warburg’s discovery would largely disappear from the cancer narrative, his contributions considered so negligible that they were left out of textbooks altogether.

        Unlike Boveri, Warburg wasn’t interested in the chromosomes of sea-urchin eggs. Rather, Warburg was focused on energy, specifically on how the eggs fueled their growth. By the time Warburg turned his attention from sea-urchin cells to the cells of a rat tumor, in 1923, he knew that sea-urchin eggs increased their oxygen consumption significantly as they grew, so he expected to see a similar need for extra oxygen in the rat tumor. Instead, the cancer cells fueled their growth by swallowing up enormous amounts of glucose (blood sugar) and breaking it down without oxygen. The result made no sense. Oxygen-fueled reactions are a much more efficient way of turning food into energy, and there was plenty of oxygen available for the cancer cells to use. But when Warburg tested additional tumors, including ones from humans, he saw the same effect every time. The cancer cells were ravenous for glucose.

        Warburg’s discovery, later named the Warburg effect, is estimated to occur in up to 80 percent of cancers. 80% is not 100% Jennifer.

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  • Ancestral Ketogenic Diets
    “The diet is high in fat ~85%, almost void of carbohydrate and predominantly animal based nose-to-tail consumption.”
    1. Our ancestors never ate a diet this high %E from fats. The maximum %E from fats was ~50%.
    2. What is Andrew’s Mg intake per day and from where does he get it? My comment on his blog asking this, which was posted on 21st November 2015 is still in moderation.

    • Hey Nigel. By ancestral I’m referring to Andrew’s consumption of animals from nose-to-tail and insects. I agree that %E from fat is high.

      Andrew consumes Mg chloride salts daily but I don’t know the dosage. That’s an important mineral for him. Why are you interested to know?

      • His diet is severely lacking in Mg (no chlorophyll or clams) and a lack of Mg causes seizures, headaches, muscle spasms, anxiety etc, I did a Ctrl F search on his blog for magnesium but got no hits. It’s dangerous to omit vital information like supplementation, as people might try Andrew’s diet based on his blog.

        Epsom Salts (MgSO4 7H2O) is the best-absorbed type, due to the 7H2O. 4g/day of Epsom Salts taken orally provides 400mg/day of magnesium and also sulphate, which is important for proper gut integrity (maintaining tight junctions).

        • Andrew does discuss supplementation during the interview. I hope he replies to your questions. Maybe you could suggest that he do a post specifically about supplementation.

          • It needs to be mentioned somewhere where it can’t be missed (e.g. in the post about his diet), as failing to get any intake of Mg has serious consequences. Did he discuss dosage during the interview?

          • I don’t recall him discussing specific dosages.

          • Oh. Can you contact him and point out what might happen if blog readers try his diet without Mg supplementation? I chose 400mg/day of Mg for no reason, other than 4g/day of Epsom Salts spread out over 24 hours doesn’t have a laxative effect and doesn’t have a noticeable taste.

            People I know that have doubled the dose to 8g/day (as a Stoss dose), spread out over 24 hours have reported no laxative effect.

          • Andrew likes your suggestion and will post more detailed info about supplementation on his blog. He takes 300 mg of magnesium chloride for the entire day. Liquid D + K2, KetoForce (ketone esters) and he recently started taking Kelp tablets for the Iodine. If I took a “stoss dose” (mega dose) of magnesium I’d be in the bathroom for 3 days following! 🙂

          • 300mg/day of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (molecular weight 203) provides only 35.5mg/day of magnesium. I think that that’s nowhere near enough.

            The stoss dose of Epsom Salts was 8g/day, spread over a 24 hour period. If you took 8g in one go, the world would definitely be falling out of your bottom! 😀

          • Andrew Scarborough

            I mention magnesium in this interview.

            Thank you for the recommendations, I could not manage my epilepsy appropriately without it and agree that it is crucial. Ionic changes in the brain are significant for anybody with epilepsy and magnesium supplementation is a key method of addressing this problem. I will write a post about it, I’m glad you mentioned the importance of magnesium.


          • Hi Andrew,

            Thanks for responding. It’s good to finally be able to communicate with you directly.

            Cheers, Nige

          • 🙂

          • Andrew Scarborough

            It is also worth noting that many of the insects I eat contain decent amounts of magnesium. I eat a good variety of these and I eat them raw or lightly cooked.

          • I had a look at Sadly, there’s no data for insects!

            It’s logical that insects contain Mg, as they eat leaves which contain chlorophyll (the plant equivalent of haemoglobin, but with four Mg atoms at the centre rather than four Fe atoms). The $64,000 question is – how much, per 100g or 200kcal?

            How long did it take to to get used to eating insects? Do bits of exoskeleton ever get stuck in your throat? I remembered

          • Andrew Scarborough

            I completely agree, excellent point. I wouldn’t advise anyone to follow the diet without magnesium supplementation in my situation in particular. Saying that, I would not advise anybody to follow my specific diet at all because I use it to manage my own individual needs. I am not advocating a particular type of diet, just sharing information and my story of what has worked for me. Some things do typically work for the majority due to our physiological requirements despite biochemical variability and I will mention this.

            Its one man’s story and I’m looking forward to us starting clinical trials next year on patients utilising some of these approaches in terms of the chemical composition of the diet specific to individual patient’s needs. It will be great to get more data from more patients.

          • Human nature being what it is, there will be readers who try your diet without watching any videos. I hate having to watch videos to get information, as it’s extremely time-consuming. I’m very impatient!

          • Well said Andrew @andrew_scarborough:disqus. Lots more research is needed before anyone can make global recommendations.

          • Daniel

            Would you agree that fish and seafood is a good source for Magnesium though? Not sure what exact foods Andrew eats, but it is also a part of ancestral diet in my view. I personally supplemented with Magnesium Citrate when I experienced muscle cramps (only on heavy leg days in the gym, normall no problem) but since I started to eat more fish I don’t have those cramps anymore, and I don’t supplement much with Mg. Well I am not zero carb, but I am on keto diet, and don’t eat much greens (well I do eat avocadoes and salad occasionally)

          • @disqus_sGX8rdsBRh:disqus I invited Andrew to comment. I suspect he might have concerns about contaminants in fish and seafood although he just started consuming Kelp capsules.

          • Andrew Scarborough

            Insects can be good sources too depending on the insect. Insects can be incredibly nutrient dense and the exoskeleton can contain its own important nutrients for health. I believe locusts can be a decent source of magnesium but could be wrong.

          • Andrew Scarborough

            Yes, I love oily fish! Yum :p

          • As clams are a very good source of Mg, I’m guessing that clams eat lots of algae. Fish contain much less Mg/200kcals than molluscs. See

          • Andrew Scarborough

            excellent point, I will make this more clear. Thanks for the feedback.

          • Andrew Scarborough

            I completely agree and have written about this now. Thank you. 🙂


          • I still prefer Magnesium Sulphate Heptahydrate (not just because I can get 200g for £1.69 from Boots chemist), as Sulphate is beneficial. See

          • Andrew Scarborough
        • right on the spot!

          • Andrew Scarborough

            Its an excellent point, I will make this more clear in writing. Thank you for the feedback.

          • Andrew Scarborough
          • Excellent read from Andrew about Magnesium. There are lots of great reasons to supplement.

        • Andrew Scarborough

          Magnesium is a crucial part of my medication protocol so I need to make this more clear. Thank you for bringing this to my attention, I definitely need to post about it and not just mention it in videos. You will see a comprehensive post by me on this subject by the end of the week once all my university work and my commitments helping disabled students at university are completed.

          I supplement with magnesium chloride to manage seizures and I also never get headaches. I have researched this extensively for nearly 3 years now among the many other things I do that I have yet to mention on my blog.

          Thank you for watching the video and for reading. This discussion is very important for anybody who may have been mislead.

    • Andrew Scarborough

      I’m sorry to read that I was not able to reply to your post Nigel. I will be writing a post in response to your queries by the end of the week. It is perhaps more ancestral in terms of the types of food rather than the macronutrient ratios.

      Even then I understand it is debatable what we used to eat however I see food as chemistry and I am just adding foods that suit what I consider to be biochemical requirements for my specific situation.

      Thank you for your feedback.

    • Daniel

      Nigel, I think the ultra high fat diet might be because of protein restriction, which is usually used for cancer treatment along with ketogenic diet to avoid glyconeogenesis. But answering what diets our ancesotrs ate, well that differs a lot a really depends on where did they live. It’s very different when you eat a seal along with some salmon, or hunt zebras and dig out tubers somewhere in Africa.

      • Andrew Scarborough

        Its a good point. It is also worth mentioning that I’m not overly concerned with what our ancestors ate, I simply use it as a reference. I prefer to study the metabolism of different organs within the body and make a judgement from there of what dietary components may be most useful to me. Its an evolving formula for me. I also take more supplements which I concede I should have mentioned. I will be doing this soon. Thank you.

        I would love to try zebra by the way! They are beautiful animals and I wonder what they taste like.

    • Andrew Scarborough
      • That’s a killer post you just wrote about Magnesium @andrew_scarborough:disqus I’m still reading.

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